Why should we do pronunciation work?
Pronunciation shouldn’t be limited to a particular time in a lesson. By doing this, it makes pronunciation seem to be something of an add-on, an afterthought. Pronunciation can be integrated at many stages of a lesson, and is a logical part of many speaking, listening and vocabulary activities. However, it is also important to consider why you are doing a pronunciation activity. Is it because it is useful for your students or is it simply because it’s in the coursebook? For example, there is little point spending ten minutes of a lesson getting students to distinguish between two phonemes (sounds) when they have no problem doing so. It is also important to think about what exactly causes misunderstanding. Is the fundamental problem to do with the way a particular sound is pronounced (or mispronounced) or is it to do with word stress, sentence stress or intonation? Getting your students to pronounce individual words perfectly may well not help them much when these words are put into connected speech.
During vocabulary work
Although I’ve talked about the need to work on pronunciation in connected speech, this does not mean that we should avoid working on it at word level. In fact, in terms of both individual sounds and word stress, working at word level is obviously the best option. Pronunciation activities should be an integral part of any vocabulary activity. Work on phonemes within a word and on word stress should take place every time an item of vocabulary is presented. Here are a few practical ideas:
odd one out
Give students a group of four words and ask them which one is the odd one out (doesn’t contain the same phoneme. Note: works best with vowels and diphthongs), ie work, turn, must, her (must contains /ʌ/, all the others contain /ɜ:/) or grow, now, soap, toe (now contains /aʊ/, all the others contain /əʊ/).
Mark the stress
Say the word to the students and ask them to count how many syllables there are, ie photograph (3) and photography (4). Say the words again and ask your students to mark the stressed syllable, ie photograph (•••) and photography (••••).
How do you say gh, th and spr?
Consonant clusters in English cause many students problems. Often students will insert vowels between the consonants to make them easier to say or simply miss out part of the cluster. Giving special attention to such clusters is important. Working on the sounds in isolation to begin with, then at a word level and finally moving on to the words in connected speech will eventually pay dividends (although it might be hard work to start with).
During listening work
One problem with many listening activities is that students only hear them once or twice. The focus of most listening activities is to answer a set of comprehension questions, or some other comprehension task such as complete a chart, indicate which speaker said which sentence, etc. This type of listening does little to help students with their pronunciation. To make the most of a listening text for pronunciation purposes, two things need to be done. Firstly, a task needs to be specifically designed to focus on aspects of pronunciation. It is no good simply to listen to a piece and answer the standard comprehension task. This simply proves students can answer these questions and not necessarily that they have understood everything. Secondly, the listening text needs to be played more than once. It is also quite useful if the focus is on only a small section of a listening task (one or two lines) as then more concentrated work can be done in terms of pronunciation.
How many words?
Take a short sentence or phrase from a listening text and play it to the students. Ask them to count the number of words they hear. To extend the activity, you could ask them to write down what they hear, then compare it to what is actually said and look at any pronunciation features that crop up, ie weak forms, unstressed words, assimilation, etc. Rationale: Often students are told just to listen out for the stressed words as these are the ones that are important (carry the meaning of the sentence), but this is blatantly untrue. For example, negatives are often unstressed and yet are fundamental to the meaning of the sentence.
What did she say?
Take one or two lines from a listening text where the phonemes in individual words are changed because they are part of connected speech. This might be in the form of elision, assimilation, weak forms (schwa), alteration of the form or intrusion. Write up two or three versions of the line in phonetic script. Play the recording at least twice and ask students to circle the line that is actually being said. Afterwards, students can practise saying the different versions of the line and noticing the differences and changes. For example, play ‘Where are you from?’. Students circle the correct phonetic transcript from: /’weərəju:ˌfrɒm/, /’wɜːrəju:ˌfrʌm/ and /’wɜ:ju:ˌfrɒm/.
During speaking work
When we talk about pronunciation, much of the time we are referring to the way in which students speak, ie whether or not they are saying things in a way which is intelligible. It is therefore essential that you take every opportunity to practise pronunciation when you are doing a speaking activity. And, it is often worth adapting an activity that wasn’t originally designed as a speaking activity in order to give your students as much pronunciation practice as possible. For example, after completing a dialogue listening activity, why not give your students the transcript and get them to act it out in pairs? In fact, playing with pronunciation is often a good way to raise awareness and engage students in the activity. It’s important to make an activity fun, but still meaningful. Here are a few ideas:
How do you feel?
Choose a few short phrases or sentences and write them up on the board, eg What are you doing? What do you mean? I’ll see you later, etc. Then write up a few ‘feelings’, eg angry, tired, worried, excited, etc. Ask the students to choose a sentence and then try saying it in a way that expresses each feeling. You might want to model this for your students by reading out one or two of the sentences using two or three of the ‘feelings’ and getting the students to guess which ‘feeling’ you are showing through your intonation, stress, tone, etc.
How stressed are you?
Choose one or two short phrases or sentences from a speaking activity and write them up on the board. Read out the first sentence, but to try and put no stress on any words (so that each syllable is the same length and pitch). Then read it out trying to put as natural a stress pattern as possible. Finally, read it out stressing every third word (or totally randomly). Ask the students in the class to tell you about what they noticed. Put students in pairs and get them to do the same with the other sentences.
Talking about it
Working on pronunciation is as much about raising your students’ awareness as it is about doing specific activities. Unless students are aware of why the activities are important, and what they are actually trying to achieve, they will be far less effective than when they understand what they are doing and why. In many cases, students think they have a problem when in fact it might well be something else (ie they are focused on producing a particular sound when in fact the problem is to do with stress). If you routinely talk about pronunciation, it is much easier to deal with such issues than if it is kept as some kind of mystery. When should you talk about it? In any of the stages mentioned above as well as during specific correction activities. Sometimes I even start a lesson by doing a five-minute pronunciation activity and discussion, based on something I’ve noticed in a previous lesson.
Integrating pronunciation into your classes and making it an integral part of your lessons will demystify it and make it far more accessible. As long as you use a variety of activity types and focus on different aspects of pronunciation as and when appropriate or necessary, you will soon find that your students both enjoy and benefit from the work you do. Making pronunciation work a routine part of your teaching will mean that your students see it as just part of the lesson and not simply a five minute add-on when you either have time or have nothing better to do.